Peer-reviewed articles 17,970 +


Greet Deruyter; Alain De Wulf; Joachim Vercruysse
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
Although originally developed for military purposes, Global Navigation Satellite Systems have become indispensable for an ever-growing range of civil and scientific applications such as cartography, cadastral and land information systems, transport systems, precision agriculture, self-driving vehicles, rescue missions, etc.
The accuracy of positioning by means of GNSS, however, is affected by atmospheric distortions of the GNSS signals as well as by the characteristics of the receiver (e.g. number of channels, firmware, etc.), local external influences (e.g. reflective surfaces, obstructions, electromagnetic distortions, etc.), and the system used to correct these distortions (e.g. SBAS, RTK, RTK-network, post-processing, etc.). Hence, to predict the accuracy of the positioning, it is important to understand the degree of robustness of the system (receiver and method) in terms of the degree in which it is affected by ionospheric conditions and local external influences.
For this research the system consisted of a Septentrio ALTUS NR3 GNSS receiver in combination with the Flemish RTK-network FLEPOS, Belgium.
To assess the accuracy and its variations, measurements in varying external circumstances, were performed according to the of ISO 17123-8 standard during the period November 2021 - April 2022.
The results show that the system is very robust for the influence of the I95 index and the location specific parameters: proximity of high voltage cables and windmills. However, the distance to the nearest reference station and the number of visible satellites can affect the precision. Further research is necessary to assess the influence of other parameters.
[1] "Other Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)," 2022/06/01, 2022;
[2] A. Kumar, S. Kumar, P. Lal, P. Saikia, P. K. Srivastava, and G. P. Petropoulos, "Introduction to GPS/GNSS technology " GPS and GNSS Technology in Geosiences, G. P. Petropoulos and P. K. Srivastava, eds., pp. 3 - 20: Elsevier, 2021.
[3] R. T. Ioannides, T. Pany, and G. Gibbons, “Known Vulnerabilities of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Status, and Potential Mitigation Techniques,” Proceedings of the Ieee, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1174-1194, Jun, 2016.
[4] M. Schaefer, and A. Pearson, "Accuracy and precision of GNSS in the field " GPS and GNSS Technology in Geosiences, G. P. Petropoulos and P. K. Srivastava, eds., pp. 393-414: Elsevier, 2021.
[5] P. Dabove, “The usability of GNSS mass-market receivers for cadastral surveys considering RTK and NRTK techniques,” Geodesy and Geodynamics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 282-289, July 2019.
[6] B. Dierickx, “The Evolution of FLEPOS 3.0,” Gim International-the Worldwide Magazine for Geomatics, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 30-31, May-Jun, 2020.
[7] X. X. Li, M. R. Ge, X. L. Dai, X. D. Ren, M. Fritsche, J. Wickert, and H. Schuh, “Accuracy and reliability of multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning: GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo,” Journal of Geodesy, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 607-635, Jun, 2015.
[8] D. Vlaanderen. "FLEPOS Centimeternauwkeurige positiebepaling," 2022/06/01, 2022;
[9] H. Azami, M. R. Mosavi, and S. Sanei, “Classification of GPS Satellites Using Improved Back Propagation Training Algorithms,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 789-803, Jul, 2013.
[10] M. Tahsin, S. Sultana, T. Reza, M. Hossam-E-Haider, and Ieee, "Analysis of DOP and its Preciseness in GNSS Position Estimation," International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Communication Technology, 2015.
[11] L. Wanninger, “Ionospheric Disturbance Indices for RTK and Network RTK Positioning,” in 17th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2004), Long Beach, CA, 2004, pp. 2849 - 2854.
[12] M. Pluta, "The Influence of Condition of the Ionosphere on the Accuracy of Real Time Kinematic GPS Measurements,", 2013].
[13] "Altus NR3 Compact GNSS Rover for Surveying & GIS Applications," Septentrio_Altus_NR3_LR-1.pdf, EMEA (HQ), 2020.
The authors want to express their gratitude to Thibault Demey and Thomas Vandenberghe for their efforts in the data acquisition and statistical analysis of the data.
Proceedings of 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022
22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022, 04 - 10 July, 2022
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Turkish Acad Sci.
04 - 10 July, 2022
GNSS, RTK-network, I95 index, accuracy, precision, high voltage

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