Peer-reviewed articles 17,970 +


Laurentiu Munteanu; Marius Cornel Suvar; Florin Manea; Ligia Ioana Tuhu?; Andrada Denisa Matei
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
The significant increase in the price of energy resources leads today's society not only to a reconsideration of energy conservation policies but also to the encouragement of architects, builders, and building owners to use thermal insulation and exterior wall finishing systems. The design of thermal insulation for facades is a constructive decision, in which the layer with thermal insulation properties is fixed on the load-bearing side of the walls, with the help of adhesives and/or by mechanical means, followed by the application of a reinforcement and finishing layer. These operations have the role of ensuring the normative values of the thermal indicators specific to the wall structures, their protection against environmental influences, ensuring the optimal microclimate of the interior compartments of the building as well as providing an attractive, aesthetic appearance to the facades and structural elements.
Wet exterior cladding or composite thermal insulation systems using polystyrene (ETICS) provide a complete and very cost-effective solution to meet the above-described goals.
However, multiple examples of fires in the scientific literature, with the spread of fire on the support of thermal insulation and finishing systems of buildings, indicate their particular danger. This fire risk is directly related to the chosen structural solution for cladding and the type of thermal insulation material used, being also influenced by noncompliance or violation of specific technical regulations or rules on the fire safety of materials and buildings.
Through the application of CFD-based computational fire field models, the associated risks for a custom 7-storey building with external cladding were considered in this study. The aim was to observe the fire spread on one side of the building, insulated using the ETICS exterior insulation and finishing system. As an insulating material, two types of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were used, with different fire resistance properties. The study results demonstrate the importance of choosing the right technical solution in terms of fire safety and the need to apply methods to limit the vertical spread of fire.
[1] Barreira E., de Freitas V.P., Experimental study on the hygrothermal behavior of ETICS, Build Environ., 63:31-9, 2013.
[2] Hosseinpour A., Eslami R., Kaviani K., and Esfahani A., Effect of expandable graphite of the building with a minimum width of 0,30 mm flammability of polystyrene foams, 12th International Seminar on Polymer Science and Technology, 2016.
[3] Mariappan T., Khastgir D., Singha N., Manjunath B. and Naik Y, Effect of Expandable Graphite on the Properties of Intumescent Flame-Retardant Polyurethane Foam, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 100 (5), pp. 2586-2594, 2008
[4] Wang S., Huang X., Chen H., Liu N., Rein G., Ignition of low-density expandable polystyrene foam by a hot particle, Combustion and Flame, 162: 4112-8, 2015.
[5] Wessie S.S., Chang M.K., Marr K.C., Ezekoye O.A., Experimental and analytical Characterization of Firebrand Ignition of Home Insulation Materials, Fire Technology, 55:1027-56, 2019.
[6] Zhou H., Yoshika H., Noguchi T., Wang K., Huang X., Fire performance of EPS ETICS Facade: Effect of Test Scale and Masonry Cover, Fire Technology, DOI: 10.1007/s10694-021-01195-x, 2022.
[7] Mazzucchelli E., Rigone P., de la Fuente Ceja B., Giussani P., Fire Safety Facade Design and Modelling, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, 8, pp. 21-42. DOI:10.7480/jfde.2020.1.4703, 2020.
[8] McGrattan K., Baum H., Rehm R., Hamins A., Forney G., Floyd J., Hostikka S., Prasad K., Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 3) - Technical Reference Guide, Gaithersburg, MA, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002.
[9] McLaggan M., Flecknoe-Brown K. W., Dragsted A., Van Hees P., Heat release and flame spread assessment of insulation in External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS) facades, IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, vol. 1107, 2018.
[10] Zhang M., Liu X., Chen Z., Wang J. S. W., Experimental study of the heat flux effect on combustion characteristics of commonly exterior thermal insulation materials, Procedia Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 578-585, 2014.
[11] Bakhtiyari S., Akbari L. T., Barikani M., The Effective Parameters for Reaction-tofire Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Foams in Bench Scale, Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 19, nr. 1, pp. 27-37, 2010.
[12] Kotthoff I., Hauswaldt S., Riese O., Riemesch-Speer J., Investigations of the performance of facades made of ETICS with polystyrene under external fire exposure and fire safety measures for their improvement, MATEC Web of Conferences 46, 02007, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20164602007, 2016.
This paper was developed within the Nucleu-Programme, carried out with the support of the Ministry for Research, Innovation and Digitalization, project no. PN-19-21-01.02, Development of institutional capability for technical expertise of fire type events for residential and industrial environments, by computerized simulation (in Romanian).
Proceedings of 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022
22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022, 04 - 10 July, 2022
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Turkish Acad Sci.
04 - 10 July, 2022
ETICS, polystyrene boards, fire hazard, building facade, numerical simulation

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