Peer-reviewed articles 17,970 +


Stanislavs Gendelis
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
Three photovoltaic (PV) systems with the identical solar panels, the same charge controllers, and similar loads, but with different used battery types: AGM deep-cycle, LiFePO4 and lead-carbon were installed in Riga, Latvia for a long-term monitoring and analysis of the operation efficiency and potential energy losses in batteries under real operation conditions. Results of one full year of monitoring are analysed in this paper resulting quantitative indicators during different seasons.
During the wintertime with low energy production, the difference in energy losses for different battery types is relatively big. On the other hand, the performance analysis during summer months, when the received solar energy increases significantly, shows the narrowing gap in stored and used energy balance between different battery types. Energy losses for all the battery types strongly depend on the monthly discharged energy, growing up to more than 50% for months with negligible amount of sunlight, meaning very ineffective operation of batteries during this period. However, the amount of energy that is lost is reduced, regardless of the type of battery tested, if the battery has a higher charge.
It can be inferred that lead batteries have significantly bigger energy losses in comparison to the other two types of batteries that were observed at all of the recorded charge levels, ranging from 2 to 10 kWh. At lower charge levels, the gap between the energy losses caused by deep-cycle batteries and those caused by lithium-ion batteries becomes more pronounced.
[1] Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast), Official Journal of the European Union, 153, 2010.
[2] Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, Official Journal of the European Union, 315, 2012.
[3] Creutzig F., Agoston P., Goldschmidt J.C., Luderer G., Nemet G., Pietzcker R.C. The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change, Nature Energy, vol. 2 (9), art. 17140, 2017. doi: 10.1038/nenergy.2017.140.
[4] Zhang D., Allagui A. Fundamentals and performance of solar photovoltaic systems (Chapter 8), Design and Performance Optimization of Renewable Energy Systems, Academic Press, 2021, ISBN 9780128216026, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821602- 6.00009-2.
[5] On the way to a climate-neutral Europe – Contributions from the building sector to a strengthened 2030 climate target BPIE - Buildings Performance Institute Europe., 2020 (accessed 1 June 2022).
[6] Gurung A., Qiao Q. Solar Charging Batteries: Advances, Challenges, and Opportunities, Joule, vol. 2 (7), pp 1217-1230, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2018.04.006.
[7] Arafat Z., Fehling T., Kleiss G., Nacke B. Application of Rechargeable Batteries of Electrical Vehicles as Time Dependent Storage Resource for the Public Electricity Grid, Energy Procedia, vol. 155, pp. 478-491, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.032.
[8] Parmeshwarappa, P., Gundlapalli, R., Jayanti, S. Power and Energy Rating Considerations in Integration of Flow Battery with Solar PV and Residential Load, Batteries, vol 7(62), 2021. doi: 10.3390/batteries7030062.
[9] Anuphappharadorn S., Sukchai S., Sirisamphanwong C., Ketjoy N. Comparison the Economic Analysis of the Battery between Lithium-ion and Lead-acid in PV Standalone Application, Energy Procedia, vol. 56, pp. 352-358, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.07.167.
[10] Gendelis S., Heincis D., Telicko J. Measurements of the actual efficiency of PV panels depending on their orientation and environmental temperature, 21st International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2021, vol. 6.2, pp. 75-82, 2021. doi: 10.5593/sgem2021V/6.2/s26.13.
This research was made possible through the postdoctoral project “Analysis of the actual energy consumption of zero energy buildings and the development of the necessary energy efficiency improvement solutions” (
Proceedings of 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022
22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022, 04 - 10 July, 2022
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Turkish Acad Sci.
04 - 10 July, 2022
PV system, solar battery, AGM battery, LiFePO4 battery, lead-carbon battery, battery energy losses