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Ziad Al-Ghazawi; William Blanford
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
Air Pollution and Climate Change
In the context of adaptation of the water resources sector to climate change, water reuse is widely proposed and encouraged especially in arid and semi-arid areas like the Middle East. We consider riverbank filtration (RBF) an appropriate technology that efficiently and dependably procure quality water from Zarqa River thus making a contribution to protect Jordan’s remaining surface and ground water resources. The river is contaminated with treated domestic and industrial wastewater principally from the city of Amman, but still serves as a main source for irrigation water.
Since 2007, a riverbank filtration (RBF) well field consisting of six wells was installed along the Zarqa river, Jordan. Salt tracers were released to the hyporheic zone and were detected in a RBF well (5 m distance from the river) during subsequent pumping. From the tracer test data (pumping rate: 10 m3/h), rapid travel times were approximated (14 m/min). Additional sampling demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages were removed from river water by RBF at the Zarqa River field site by up to 4.2 log10, which is a significant improvement of the river water quality. This implies that public health risks from exposure to riverbank filtrated water, like consumption of raw vegetables that are irrigated with this water, may be reduced by 2000 to 2500 times as compared to using river water directly. These results suggest that riverbank filtration is an appropriate technology which can enhance the safe reuse of treated wastewater.
RBF, Microbes, Removal, Irrigation, Wastewater, Adaptation, Climate Change
[1] Boving, T.B., Cady, P., Choudri, B.S., Hawaldar, K., Blanford, W., 2010: Improving Water Quality by Riverbank Filtration – Experiences in India and Jordan (Full Paper). In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Perspective on Current and Future State of Water Resources and the Environment. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) / Association of environmental and water resources engineers and scientists conference (EWRI), Chennai, India.
[2] Boving, T.B., Cady, P., Choudri, B.S., Patil, K., 2014: Experiences with Riverbank Filtration in Jordan and India. Proceedings of International Scientific Committee: 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE). Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 21-22, 2014. Pgs. 2-8, ISBN 978-602-98397-4-6
[3] Boving, T.B., Choudri, B.S., Cady, P., Davis, A., Patil, K., Reddy, V., 2014. Hydraulics and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of a Riverbank Filtration Site in Rural India. Water Enviro. Res., Vol. 86.
[5] Boving, T.B., Choudri, B.S., Cady, P., Davis, A., Patil, K., Reddy, V., 2012: Acceptance of a Riverbank Filtration System in Rural India. Special Issue on Bank Filtration. J. Indian Water Works Association, Dec. 12, 33-41.
[6] Cady, P., Boving, T.B., Choudri, B.S., Davis, A., Patil, K., Reddy, V., 2013. Attenuation of Bacteria at a Riverbank Filtration Site in Rural India. Water Environment Research; Vol. 85, Number 11, November 2013, pp. 2164-2174.
[7] Dash, R.R., Bhanu Prakash, E.V., Kumar, P., Mehrotra, I., Sandhu, C., Grischek, T., 2010.River bank filtration in Haridwar, India: removal of turbidity, organics, and bacteria. Hydrogeol.J. 18:973-983.
[8] Grischek, T., Schoenheinz, D., Ray, C., 2002. Siting and design issues for river bank filtrationschemes. In: Ray, C. et al (eds) Riverbank filtration: improving source water quality. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 291–302.
[9] Hiscock, K.M., Grischek, T., 2002. Attenuation of groundwater pollution by bank filtration.J. Hydrol., 266(3-4), 139-144.
[10] Hubbs, S., Ray, C., Mucha, I., 2004. Riverbank Filtration: Effect of Riverbed Clogging on Water Quality and System Capacity. In: NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Clogging in Riverbank Filtration. Bratislava, Slovakia Republic. 7-10 Sept. 2004, Access:http://www.soulstatic.com/NATORBF.
[11] Kuehn, W., Mueller, U., 2000: Riverbank Filtration: An Overview. J. AWWA, 92(12), 60-69(12) Kelly, B.P., Rydlund, P.H.J., 2006. Water-Quality Changes Caused by Riverbank Filtration Between the Missouri River and Three Pumping Wells of the Independence, Missouri, Well Field2003-05: USGS, Report Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5174, 1-48 pp
[12] Kumar, P., Mehrotra, I., 2009. Riverbank Filtration for Water Supply: Indian Experience. Conference Proceeding Paper. In: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009.American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 1-9.
[13] Ray, C. (Editor), 2002: Riverbank Filtration: Understanding Contaminant Biogeochemistry and Pathogen Removal. Kluwer Academic Publ., The Netherlands. 253 pages. ISBN 1-4020-0955-0.
[14] Ray, C.; Schubert, J.; Linsky, R.B.; Melin, G., 2002. Introduction. In Riverbank Filtration: Improving Source Water Quality; Ray, C., Melin, G., Linsky, R.B., Eds.; Kluwer Academic Publishers and National Water Research Institute: Boston, 2002.
[15] Saadoun, I., Al-Ghazawi, Z., Ababneh, Q., Schijven, J., van den Berg, H., ALRashdan, J., Shawaqfeh, M., Blandford, W., Boving, T. and Meqdam, M., 2008: Removal of fecal indicator coliform and bacteriophages by riverbank filtration (RBF) in Jordan. Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction and Building Technology (ICCCBT), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
[16] Sandhu, C., Grischek, T., Kumar, P., Ray, C., 2011: Potential for Riverbank filtration in India. Clean Techn. Envrion. Policy, 13(2), 295-316.
[17] Sandhu, C, Grischek, T, Schoenheinz, D, Ojha, CSP, Irmscher, R, Uniyal, HP, Thakur, AK, Ray, C, 2006. Drinking water production in India—bank filtration as an alternative, Water Digest 1(3), 62–65.
[18] Schmidt, C.K., Lange, F.T., Brauch, H.-J., Kuehn, W., 2003. Experiences with riverbankfiltration and infiltration in Germany. DVGW-Water Technology Center (TZW) Karlsruhe, Germany. Access: http://www.tzw.de/pdf/bankfiltration.pdf accessed 01-02-2012.
[19] Schubert, J., 2002: Hydraulic aspects of riverbank filtration-field studies. Journal of Hydrology, 15 September 2002, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. 145-161(17)
[20] Water Authority of Jordan, February 2009: Water for Life: Jordan's Water Strategy 2008-2022, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Amman, Jordan
This study was made possible under a grant from the NATO Science for Peace Program and considerable in-kind contributions by Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST).
Proceedings of 22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022
22nd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2022, 04 - 10 July, 2022
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Turkish Acad Sci.
04 - 10 July, 2022