Peer-reviewed articles 17,970 +


Kamil Gajewski; Tymoteusz Turlej; Julia Zieba; Bartosz Werminski
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
3D printing technology is used in many areas, especially in prototyping new parts and elements. Assessment of the quality of powders for the production of 3D printing filament is extremely important because it has a direct impact on the quality and reliability of printed objects. High-quality powders are essential to ensure optimal performance and print accuracy.
In the case of 3D printing, filament is the basic material that is processed and layered to create three-dimensional objects. To ensure the quality and durability of printed items, the powders used to produce the filament must meet specific requirements.
When evaluating the quality of powders, various factors such as physical, chemical and mechanical properties are taken into account. Powders should be of sufficient purity and uniformity to avoid inclusions or misprints. Mechanical properties such as strength, flexibility and abrasion resistance are also important, especially in the case of objects that are subjected to loads or forces.
Evaluating the quality of powders also allows you to determine their compliance with specific industry standards and regulations. For specialist applications such as medicine or the aerospace industry, there are strict safety and quality requirements. Suitable powders must meet these standards to ensure the safety of end users and the effective functioning of printed parts.
The paper presents the results of the use of optical microscopy techniques combined with image analysis to assess the quality of recycled materials for filament production. The results of grain size characteristics of powders using a grain size and size analyzer were presented. Using the analysis of processed images, it was classified whether a given recycled material has the appropriate parameters for use in the production of 3D printing.
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[2] Oyinlola M., Okoya S. A., Whitehead T., Evans M., Lowe A. S., The potential of converting plastic waste to 3D printed products in Sub-Saharan Africa, Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances, vol. 17, 2023,;
[3] Patti A., Acierno S., Cicala G., Zarrelli M., Acierno D., Assessment of Recycled PLA-BasedFilament for 3D Printing, Materials. Proceedings, 7, 16, 2021,;
[4] Oussai A., Bartfai Z., Development of 3D Printing Raw Materials from Plastic Waste. A Case Study on Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate, Applied Science 11(16), 7338, 2021,;;
[5] Pakkanen, J., Manfredi, D., Minetola, P., Iuliano, L., About the Use of Recycled or Biodegradable Filaments for Sustainability of 3D Printing. Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2017. SDM 2017. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, vol 68. Springer, 2017
[6] Arrigo R., Battegazzore D., Bernagozzi G., Cravero F., Pedraza D. N., Frache A., Recycled PP for 3D Printing: Material and Processing Optimization through Design of Experiment, Applied Science, 12(21), 2022, 10840;
[5] Cyr M., Tagnit-Hamou A., Particle size distribution of fine powders by LASER diffraction spectrometry. Case of cementitious materials, Materials and Structures 34(6), pp. 342-350, 2001, 10.1007/BF02486485
[6] Islam S. F., Hawins S. M., Meyer J. L. L. Sharman A. R. C., Evaluation of different particle size distribution and morphology characterization techniques, Additive Manufacturing Letters, vol. 3, 2022,
[9] Meyers R. A., Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), Academic Press, pp. 649-654, 2003, ISBN 9780122274107, 12-227410-5/00549-4
[10] Banas M., Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), Academic PresLaboratory studies on multistream sedimentation of non-grain suspensions Przemysl Chemiczny, 97(9), pp. 1453–1455, 2018, 10.15199/62.2018.9.3
The work was created as a result of the research project No. 5873 financed by the Rector of AGH, IDUB and the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics AGH.
Proceedings of 23rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2023
23rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2023, 03 - 09 July, 2023
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Russian Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Russian Acad Arts; Turkish Acad Sci.
03 - 09 July, 2023
optical microscopy, 3D printing, image analysis and processing

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