Peer-reviewed articles 17,970 +


Ing. Martina Zaleska; PhD., Ing. Milena Pavlikova; Ph.D.,Ing. Adam Pivak, Mgr. Jana Nabelkova; Ph.D., Ing. Zbysek Pavlik; Ph.D.
•    Prof. DSc. Oleksandr Trofymchuk, UKRAINE 
•    Prof. Dr. hab. oec. Baiba Rivza, LATVIA
With the rapid growth of the population and urbanization, the demand for industrial production has continued to increase, and industrial solid waste has become more and more abundant. Industrial solid waste mainly includes fly ashes, slags, tailings, red mud, bottom ashes and other wastes, which account for approximately 80% of the total waste produced on Earth. Industrial wastes generally contain various heavy metal components such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, As, Ba and Mn. The low recycling rate of solid waste results in significant land use for disposal, and the heavy metals and alkaline substances contained in solid waste spread pollution through weathering in the form of dust and leaching into soil and groundwater resources, leading to water contamination and land salinization. Heavy metal pollution not only has a negative impact on soil and water quality, but also gradually accumulates in the human body, causing serious health problems and diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy, and Alzheimer's disease, while some metals can even cause cancer. Contamination by heavy metals and other solid wastes poses serious consequences for the environment and sustainable development and, in the longer term, essentially threatens the very existence of an industrial and prosperous human society. Coal is the world's most abundant fossil fuel accounting for approximately 70% of the world's total proven fossil fuel resources. Coal combustion produces not only common pollutants such as SOx, NOx and dust, but also highly toxic heavy metal pollutants. As heavy metals in coal have the characteristics of low content, large total emission, easy to migrate and difficult to degrade, which cause a great harm to human body and environment, there is necessary to control the emission of heavy metals from coal combustion and treat them in a safe way. On that ground the use of fly ash (FA) from coal combustion in a cement-based composite intended for the construction industry, combined with the immobilization of heavy metals in the final product, may be a suitable solution to this problem. In this study, the immobilization of As, Ba and Cu contained in fly ash from coal combustion was experimentally investigated. Fly ash was used to replace 10 wt.% and 20 wt.% of Portland cement (PC) and 0-2 mm silica sand was used as an aggregate. The evaluation of the basic physical and mechanical properties was carried out. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of the immobilization of the studied heavy metals in the prepared composites; the leaching test was performed with a liquid/solid ratio of 10 L/kg. The concentration of As, Ba and Cu in the leachates was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that the concentrations of the studied heavy metals in the leachates of the prepared composites were very low, which suggests that they were completely immobilized in the matrices. The mechanical resistance of the prepared mortars was slightly reduced by PC substitution by FA, but from the quantitative point of view it remained high enough for practical use of prepared composites in development of "green" building materials.
[1] Grabias-Blicharz E., Franus W., A critical review on mechanochemical processingof fly ash and fly ash-derived materials, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 860,160529, 2023.
[2] Zaleska M., Pavlikova M., Pavlik Z., Jankovsky O., Pokorny J., Tydlitat V., SvoraP., Cerny R., Physical and chemical characterization of technogenic pozzolans for theapplication in blended cements, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 160, pp. 106-116, 2018.
[3] Guo B., Liu B., Zhang S., The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization bycementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review, Journal ofEnvironmental Management, vol. 193, pp 410-422, 2017.
[4] Fan Ch., Wang B., Ai H., Qi Y., Liu Z., A comparative study onsolidification/stabilization characteristics of coal fly ash-based geopolymer and Portlandcement on heavy metals in MSWI fly ash, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 319,128790, 2021.
[5] Kim H.-T., Lee T. G., A simultaneous stabilization and solidification of the top fivemost toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cr, and Cd), Chemosphere, vol. 178, pp. 479-485,2017.
[6] Yuan Z., Cai G., Gao L., Wu M., Kong L., Bai J., Bai Z. Li H., Li W., The physicalencapsulation and chemical fixation of Zn during thermal treatment process ofmunicipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, Waste Management, vol. 166, pp.203-210, 2023.
[7] EN 13657 Characterization of waste - Digestion for subsequent determination ofaqua regia soluble portions of elements, CEN 2002.
[8] EN 196-1 Methods of testing cement - Part 1: Determination of strength, CEN 2010.
[9] EN 12457-4 Characterisation of waste - Leaching - Compliance test for leaching ofgranular waste materials and sludges - Part 4: One stage batch test at a liquid to solidratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 10 mm (without or with sizereduction), CEN 2002.
[10] Al-Shmaisani S., Kalina R.D., Ferron R.D., Jeunger M.C.G., Assessment ofblended coal source fly ashes and blended fly ashes, Construction and BuildingMaterials, vol. 342, 127918, 2022.
Authors greatly acknowledge the financial support received from the Czech ScienceFoundation under project No. 23-04744S - Research of heavy metals immobilization inalternative low-carbon composites. This research has been also partially supported bythe Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague, grant No.SGS23/OHK1/3T-002/23 - Research and development of high performance buildingcomposites.
Proceedings of 23rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2023
23rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2023, 28-30 November, 2023
Proceedings Paper
STEF92 Technology
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference-SGEM
SWS Scholarly Society; Acad Sci Czech Republ; Latvian Acad Sci; Polish Acad Sci; Russian Acad Sci; Serbian Acad Sci and Arts; Natl Acad Sci Ukraine; Natl Acad Sci Armenia; Sci Council Japan; European Acad Sci, Arts and Letters; Acad Fine Arts Zagreb Croatia; Croatian Acad Sci and Arts; Acad Sci Moldova; Montenegrin Acad Sci and Arts; Georgian Acad Sci; Acad Fine Arts and Design Bratislava; Russian Acad Arts; Turkish Acad Sci.
28-30 November, 2023
heavy metals, immobilization, cement-based composites, coal combustion fly ash, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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